Alternatives in Veterinary Anatomy Training
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a dataset collected by the EU Commission in June-September 2018
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Owner/Developer: Alternatives in Veterinary Anatomy - University of California, Davis (AVAR)
United States of America
01 January 1999
United States of America
Computer assisted learning, Hands-on training
Mandatory, Optional / Voluntary
Models of animals (e.g. mannequins, simulators, cadavers), Carrying out procedures on animals
Full coverage (a dedicated course)
No species is addressed specifically
|Details on the topic or technology covered:||
1. Computer Software
The items in this category are numerous. The following are some good examples.
a) Comparative Anatomy: Mammals, Birds and Fish
This computer software covers an introduction to:
• Organization of the Organism Orientation to Cells, Tissues and Organs
• Musculoskeletal System
• Circulatory System
• Nervous System
• Integumentary System
• Urinary System
• Digestive System
• Respiratory System
• Reproductive System
b) MediClip Veterinary Anatomy
This computer software that consists of primarily surface and internal anatomy of all regions and
systems, with depictions of some surgical and anesthesia techniques. Animals include horses,
dogs, cats, birds, frogs, cows, pigs, and goats. This well-known MediClip series contains 494
images created by some of today’s foremost medical and veterinary illustrators.
Veterinary Neurosciences – An Interactive Atlas
This computer software provides students with an interactive neuroanatomical atlas. Structures
of the canine brain can be examined in high-resolution, 8-bit color, myelin stained, transverse
Association of Veterinarians for Animal Rights
Alternatives in Veterinary Anatomy sections. Analogous gross sections of the sheep brain are instantly available with the click of a
button. A variety of additional gross views are also provided. Both histologic and gross views
have interactive highlighting labels that allow the student to learn about over a hundred
structures by either directly clicking on the image or on the structures name in a text list. A Find
command gives instant access to a particular structure. Nine additional modules present the
major Somatosensory, Motor and Visual pathways. A series of color graphics trace the names
and locations of the neural tracts and relay nuclei from the origin to the termination of each
pathway. The modules are fully integrated with the atlas providing access to histologic or gross
views of any point along the pathway.
a) Plastination of Anatomy Specimens
This is a process by which natural specimens, after formalin fixation, are dehydrated and then
infiltrated with silicone. The result is a durable, real anatomic specimen, which can last
indefinitely for use in anatomy labs.
Prosection is the carefully programmed dissection for demonstration of anatomic structure.
Using prosections, verses individual or groups of students dissecting their own cadavers and
increasing the number of students studying a particular cadaver, decreases the overall number of
animals used. No difference in learning is seen or demonstratable.
“Analysis of performance in this course [in which prosection was compared with dissection]
showed that veterinary students do not need to dissect every area to learn comparative
anatomy effectively. Students made as many errors on structures that they learned by
dissection as they did on structures learned from peer prosection. This finding is important
for 2 reasons. First, learning by demonstration requires much less class time than does
dissection (2 hours for a dissection assignment vs. 20 to 30 minutes for a demonstration).
Second, the use of prosections can reduce the number of animals needed to teach gross
"These findings are in agreement with those in human anatomy. ...studies measuring retention
have shown no difference between prosection and dissection."
This is a process of lyophilization and silicone infiltration (rather than plastination) for
preservation of tissues. It is stated to be environmentally safe (cf. plastination) and that the end
result is a translucent, durable preserved specimen, which is resistant to compressive forces.
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