Animals in Research. Law, Policy, and Humane Science
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Owner/Developer: Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health (JHU)
United States of America
04 December 2017
United States of America
Baltimore, Maryland, USA
The course introduces students to the principles, laws, and policies that influence the use of animals and alternative, non-animal-based (humane sciences) research techniques in biomedical research. The ethics of animal use in science and education is also discussed.
We also discuss with individual student about their (future) research and encourage alternative approaches to replace and reduce animal use. Refinement is another area the course covers: the refinement of housing and husbandry; the culture of care and compassion as a refinement; and refinement of planning, conduct and reporting (to ensure scientific rigor and responsible animal use). The need for openness, data sharing and preregistration is also taught. Furthermore, the importance of systematically reviewing conducted animal studies before doing additional experiments is highlighted as a way to reduce animal use, to identify quality issues of animal studies and to verify if the model is appropriate for the planned research study.
The course consists of 10 online lectures accompanied by live talks and weekly online discussions. At the end of the course, we help students plan their research studies. In case there is no alternative to animal use, we let them prepare an IACUC (The Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee) proposal as final project.
Akhtar, A.Z. (2015). The flaws and human harms of animal experimentation. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics, 24(04), pp. 407-419.
Bailey, J. (2014). Monkey-based research on human disease: the implications of genetic differences. Alternatives to Laboratory Animals, 42, pp. 287-317.
Balls, M. (2010). The principles of humane experimental technique: timeless insights and unheeded warnings. ALTEX, 27, pp. 19-23.
Birke, L., Arluke, A. and Michael, M. (2007). The Sacrifice: How scientific experiments transform animals and people. West Lafayette, Indiana: Purdue University Press.
Cavanaugh, S. E., Pippin, J. J. and Barnard, N. D. (2014). Animal models of Alzheimer disease: historical pitfalls and a path forward. Alternatives to Animal Experimentation, 31(3), pp. 279-302.
Clemence, M. and Leaman, J. (2016). Public attitudes to animal research in 2016. A report by Ipsos MORI for the Department for Business, Energy & Industrial Strategy, Ipsos MORI Social Research Instititute. [online] Available at: https://www.ipsos.com/sites/default/files/publication/1970-01/sri-public-attitudes-to-animal-research-2016.pdf
de Vries, R.B., Buma, P., Leenaars, M., Ritskes-Hoitinga, M. and Gordijn, B. (2012). Reducing the number of laboratory animals used in tissue engineering research by restricting the variety of animal models. Articular cartilage tissue engineering as a case study. Tissue Engineering Part B: Reviews, 18(6), pp. 427-435.
Freedman, L.P., Cockburn, I.M., Simcoe, T.S. (2015). The Economics of Reproducibility in Preclinical Research. PLoS Biology, 13(6), p. e1002165. [online] Available at: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002165
Haidt, J. (2012). The righteous mind: Why good people are divided by politics and religion. Vintage.
Harris, R. (2017). Rigor mortis. How sloppy science creates worthless cures, crushes hope, and wastes billions. New York: Basic.
Hartshorne, J. and Schachner, A. (2012). Tracking replicability as a method of post-publication open evaluation. Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience, 6, p. 8. [online] Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3293145/
Herrmann, K. (forthcoming 2018). Refinement on the way to replacement: are we doing what we can? In: K. Herrmann and K. Jayne, eds., Animal experimentation: working towards a paradigm change. Human Animal Studies series.
Herrmann, K. and Flecknell, P.A. (in press): Retrospective review of anesthetic and analgesic regimens used in animal research proposals. Alternatives to Animal Experimentation.
Herrmann, K. and Flecknell, P.A. (submitted): Retrospective review of animal research proposals for mice and rats with a focus on severity of procedures, health monitoring, humane endpoints and killing methods.
Herrmann, K. and Jayne, K. (eds.) (forthcoming 2018). Animal experimentation: working towards a paradigm change. Brill Human-Animal studies series , open access.
Computer assisted learning, Interactive online resources, Lecture
Optional / Voluntary
10 weeks with weekly online lectures, live talks and discussions
student in the life sciences
Undergraduate, University (Bachelor), University (Master), University (Doctoral education), Postdoctoral (teaching and research), Continuing Professional Development
Refinement, Reduction, Replacement
Designing procedures and projects, Taking care of animals, Computational methods, In vitro methods, Ethics, Legislative aspects, Other
Full coverage (a dedicated course)
Rodents, Lagomorphs, Non-human primates, Small animals, Mice (Mus musculus), Rats (Rattus norvegicus), Guinea-Pigs (Cavia porcellus), Hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus [Syrian] & cricetulus griseus [Chinese]), Mongolian Gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus), Chinchillas, Cats (Felis catus), Dogs (Canis familiaris), Ferrets (Mustela putorius furo), Horses, donkeys and cross breds (Equidae), Pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus), Goats (Capra aegagrus hircus), Sheep (Ovis aries), Marmoset and tamarins (eg. Callithrix jacchus), Cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis), Rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta), Baboons (Papio spp.), Zebra finches, Xenopus (Xenopus laevis and Xenopus tropicalis), Zebrafish (Danio rerio)
|Course level on animal species:||
Introductory course, Basic course, Advanced course
The aim of this course is to prepare students of the life sciences for their research by considering all the 3 Rs.
|Accreditation body and/or authority that approved the education or training:||
Johns Hopkins internal accreditation system
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