The Three Vs have been proposed by Professor Hanno Würbel:
- Construct Validity
- Internal Validity
- External Validity
Making a case for animal research: The 3Vs and 3Rs principles, (webinar by Hanno Würbel), 10 November 2021
Würbel (2017): More than 3Rs: the importance of scientific validity for harm-benefit analysis of animal research
Eggel & Würbel (2021): Internal consistency and compatibility of the 3Rs and 3Vs principles for project evaluation of animal research
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