Cephalopods in research
Both the Norwegian Animal Welfare Act, the Norwegian Regulation on the use of animals in research and the EU's Directive 2010/63 give protection to cephalopods.
This page is being used to collect links to resources concerned with cephalopods (especially octopus, squid and cuttlefish). Resources in the sections on fish and on other aquatic animals may also be useful.
General and species-specific recommendations for minimal requirements for the use of cephalopods in scientific research including 69 pages of supplementary information (Ponte et al., 2022)
Cephalopod Research (CephRes): a non-profit organisation with the aims of promoting the advancement of biological science and related disciplines, and education and advanced training, to foster the study and dissemination of knowledge regarding cephalopods and marine organisms that share their biota.
COST Action FA1301 (CephsInAction):
Network for Improvement of Cephalopod Welfare and Husbandry in Research, Aquaculture and Fisheries (2013-2017). The Action has its own website.
3R-resources (guidelines, databases, email lists and journals) that apply to cephalopods may be accessed in the 3R Guide database using the search engine on this website:
Severity classification of procedures used on fish may be of use when planning research involving cephalopods.
Other literature references and links:
- Birch et al. (2021): Review of the evidence of sentience in cephalopod molluscs and decapod crustaceans
- Guidance from the Animal Ethics Sub-Committee of the University of KwaZulu-Natal Ethics Committee, South Africa: Approved protocols for decapods, cephalopods and fish
- Schnell AK et al. (2020): How intelligent is a cephalopod? Lessons from comparative cognition
- De Sio et al. (2020): E Pluribus Octo: Building Consensus on Standards of Care and Experimentation in Cephalopod Research; A Historical Outlook
- Capaz JC et al. (2020): Control of Zootechnology Leads to Improved Cuttlefish (Sepia Officinalis L.) Reproduction Performance Up to Pre-Industrial Levels
- Cooke GM et al. (2019): Prospective severity classification of scientific procedures in cephalopods: Report of a COST FA1301 Working Group Survey
- Neff EP (2019): Considering the cephalopod. Lab Animal, 48, 19-22
- Shigeno et al. (2018): Cephalopod Brains: An Overview of Current Knowledge to Facilitate Comparison With Vertebrates
- O'Rourke et al. (2018): Nontraditional Laboratory Animal Species (Cephalopods, Fish, Amphibians, Reptiles, and Birds) - health and safety issues
- Lopes VM et al. (2017): Cephalopod biology and care, a COST FA1301 (CephsInAction) training school: anaesthesia and scientific procedures
- Sykes AV, Almansa E, Cooke GM, Ponte G & Andrews PL (2017). The digestive tract of cephalopods: a neglected topic of relevance to animal welfare in the laboratory and aquaculture.
- Mather & Alopay (2016): An ethogram for Benthic Octopods (Cephalopoda: Octopodidae)
- Fiorito G et al. (2014) Cephalopods in neuroscience: regulations, research and the 3Rs
- UK Home Office Code of Practice for the Housing and Care of Animals Bred, Supplied or Used for Scientific Purposes, December 2014, has a section on cephalopods.
- Special issue of the Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology on Cephalopod biology
- Smith JA et al. (2013): Cephalopod research and EU Directive 2010/63/EU: Requirements, impacts and ethical review
- Andrews PLR et al. (2013): The identification and management of pain, suffering and distress in cephalopods, including anaesthesia, analgesia and humane killing
- Mather J (2012): Enrichment and cephalopods. The Enrichment Record, July 2012, 24-28.
- Sykes AV, Baptista FD, Gonçalves RA & Andrade JP (2012). Directive 2010 ⁄ 63 ⁄ EU on animal welfare: a review on the existing scientific knowledge and implications in cephalopod aquaculture research.
- ILAR Journal (2011): Spineless wonders: welfare and use of invertebrates in the laboratory and classroom. Theme number, volume 52, issue 2.
- Boyle P & Rodhouse P (2005): Cephalopods: Ecology and Fisheries. Wiley-Blackwell, 464 pages.
- Oestmann DJ, Scimeca JM, Forsythe J, Hanlon RT & Lee P (1997). Special considerations for keeping cephalopods in laboratory facilities. Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science, 36, 89-93.
- Hanlon RT & Messenger JB (1996). Cephalopod Behaviour. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
- Forsythe JW, DeRusha RH & Hanlon RT (1994). Growth, reproduction and life-span of Sepia officinalis (Cephalopoda, Mollusca) cultured through seven consecutive generations.
- Boyle PR (1981). Methods for the aquarium maintenance of the common octopus of British waters, Eledone cirrhosa. Laboratory Animals, 15, 327-331.
- The Curious Ceph YouTube channel
- Ethological score of Octopus (FishEthoScore)
- The Cephalopod Page
- Training Courses run by Charles River
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