Transplantations

Source

Non-harmful / below threshold / severity degree 0 Mild / severity degree 1 Moderate / severity degree 2 Severe / severity degree 3
Directive 2010/63/EU, Annex VIII

      Organ transplantation where organ rejection is likely to lead to severe distress or impairment of the general condition of the animals (e.g. xenotransplantation).
Federal Food Safety and Veterinary Office FSVO (2018)  

Interventions causing mild short-term pain or injury and low-grade local changes without disturbances of body function or general condition.

Examples: Subcutaneous transplantations of organs without physiological function in the recipient animals. Transplantation of mouse hearts subcutaneously behind the ear of recipient mice. Transfer of immune cells into a recipient animal with or without mild temporary pathology.

Donor animals euthanized under deep anaesthesia after the surgical intervention.

Transplantations of organs without physiological function in the recipient animals (with the exception of subcutaneous localisation).

Examples: Second heart transplantation into the abdominal cavity. Transplantation of islet cells under the kidney capsule. Models with skin grafting, without severe restriction of movement. Transfer of immune cells causing transient clinical disease in the recipient animal.

Transplantation of organs with physiological function in the recipient animal, the failure of which leads to severe strain.

Examples: Rejection of limb after allotransplantation. Kidney transplantation. Pancreas transplantation.

 

Cellular reactions

Source

Non-harmful / below threshold / severity degree 0 Mild / severity degree 1 Moderate / severity degree 2 Severe / severity degree 3
Federal Food Safety and Veterinary Office FSVO (2018)

 

Experiments inducing low-grade local tissue reactions without disturbances of body function or general condition.

Examples: Local graft-versus-host reaction, delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH, Jones Mote reaction).
Experiments inducing medium-grade local tissue reactions with transient disturbances of body function or general condition.

Experiments inducing generalised tissue rejection reactions.

Examples: Generalised graft-versus-host reactions.

 

Autoimmune reactions

Source

Non-harmful / below threshold / severity degree 0 Mild / severity degree 1 Moderate / severity degree 2 Severe / severity degree 3
Federal Food Safety and Veterinary Office FSVO (2018)

     

Experiments inducing generalised inflammatory reactions in the body.

Examples: Acute and recurring experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. Mercury-induced glomerulonephritis. Experimental uveoretinitis.

Transmitted rheumatoid arthritis.

 

Immunisation

Source

Non-harmful / below threshold / severity degree 0 Mild / severity degree 1 Moderate / severity degree 2 Severe / severity degree 3
Federal Food Safety and Veterinary Office FSVO (2018)

  Examples: Subcutaneous immunisation with adjuvants not inducing granulomas. Intradermal immunisation without adjuvant.. Examples: Subcutaneous immunisation of rabbits, mice, rats or guinea pigs using Freund’s complete adjuvant (or adjuvant with comparable high mineral oil content), no administration into the foot. Intradermal immunisation with or without adjuvant. Immunisation with small amounts of antigen, directly under the splenic capsule (operation) or into a lymph node, under general anaesthesia. Tuberculin reaction after intracutaneous injection into a foot. Any immunisation of animals with autologous tissue that leads to autoimmune disease if the experiment is not terminated prematurely, EAE model with MOG peptide immunisation.
Working Group of Berlin Animal Welfare Officers (2010) non-existent Without irreparable tissue damage: subcutaneous, intramuscular, intravenous for DNA, proteins. Intraperitoneal with Freund’s adjuvant or generation of ascites, without considerable increase in volume. Intramuscular with subsequent necrosis, depending on size and location (Depending on the extent, it can also be rated as severe.). Pads. Intraperitoneal with generation of ascites and increase in volume. Intramuscular with subsequent necrosis, depending on size and location.

 

Immunity

Source

Non-harmful / below threshold / severity degree 0 Mild / severity degree 1 Moderate / severity degree 2 Severe / severity degree 3
Directive 2010/63/EU, Annex VIII

      Vaccine potency testing characterised by persistent impairment of the animal’s condition, progressive disease leading to death, associated with long-lasting moderate pain, distress or suffering.
Federal Food Safety and Veterinary Office FSVO (2018)   Application of inactivated bacteria, viruses or parasites (or constituents thereof) without subsequent challenge to test the immune response, with exclusively low-grade short- term local inflammatory reaction (no foot injection)
Examples: Application of vaccines (incl. equine influenza, parvoviroses, equine virus abortion) for subsequent testing of immunogenicity. Validation of a viral vaccine in field trials.
Application of inactivated bacteria, viruses or parasites (or constituents thereof) without subsequent challenge to test the immune response, with significant inflammatory reaction.

Application of inactivated bacteria, viruses or parasites (or constituents thereof) with subsequent challenge (immunogenicity tests) to test the immune response.

Examples: Influenza leading to severe clinical symptoms such as a drop in body temperature to 32 degrees or below in mice. LCMV i.c. (lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus).

 

Inflammation

Source

Non-harmful / below threshold / severity degree 0 Mild / severity degree 1 Moderate / severity degree 2 Severe / severity degree 3
Federal Food Safety and Veterinary Office FSVO (2018)

 

Experiments inducing low-grade local tissue reactions without disturbances of body function or general condition.

Examples: Arachidonic acid test on the mouse ear.

Inflammation causing medium-grade local tissue reactions with transient disturbances of body function or general condition.

Examples: Induced peritoneal macrophages for longer than 3 days (with administration of painkillers during the experiment). Air pouch model in the rat. Screening of anti-inflammatory agents in mouse strains with spontaneously occurring autoimmune disease (MRL Ipr/Ipr mice). All models with acute paw oedema with the exception of CFA application using paw volume as measurement criterion and with <6 hours test duration. Psoriasis model: Oxazolone-induced DTH (delayed type hypersensitivity) in the ears of mice (redness, oedema, inflammation).

Inflammation causing medium to long-term moderate or severe pain and suffering as well as injury.

Examples: Pertussis pleuritis in rats and mice. Relapsing encephalomyelitis model, without euthanasia of the animals during the first episode. Models of acute hind paw oedema including CFA injection <7 days. DSS- and TNBS-induced colitis. T-cell transfer for colitis induction.
Working Group of Berlin Animal Welfare Officers (2010)  

Anti-pyrexia in rats with LPS (0,1 mg/kg) or IL-1. Arachidonic acid test on the mouse ear.

Air pouch model in rats. Encephalomyelitis model in which animals are killed during the first exacerbation. Screening of antiinflammatory drugs in mouse strains with spontaneously occurring immune mediated disease.

Pertussis pleurisy in mice/rats. Recurrent encephalomyelitis model without killing the animals during the first exacerbation. Sudeck’s disease models.

 

Arthritis

Source

Non-harmful / below threshold / severity degree 0 Mild / severity degree 1 Moderate / severity degree 2 Severe / severity degree 3
Federal Food Safety and Veterinary Office FSVO (2018)

  Collagen-II-induced arthritis or adjuvant arthritis with low-grade local tissue changes without clinical symptoms such as redness or swelling of a toe or foot.

Experiments inducing medium-grade local tissue reactions with transient disturbances of body function or general condition.

Examples: Randall-Selitto test. Adjuvant arthritis with euthanasia of animals if weight-bearing capacity of a leg is restricted. Collagen-II-induced arthritis with symptoms in more than one toe on a foot. Euthanasia of the animal within 14 days after inducing the arthritis.

Arthritis with severe clinical symptoms and/or long-term constraint after induction of arthritis.

Examples: Adjuvant arthritis with inflammation and/or swelling of an entire paw or ankylosis. Collagen-II-induced arthritis with clinical symptoms. Carragheen arthritis model. Arthritis induction in inbred mouse strains with Borrelia spirochetes. Autoimmune arthritis. Arthritis induced by xenogenic or autologous collagen-II with symptoms such as inflammation and/or swelling of an entire paw.
Working Group of Berlin Animal Welfare Officers (2010)    

Adjuvant arthritis with killing of the animals < 19 after generating the arthritis (killing at first sign of the characteristic of arthritis). Collagen II induced arthritis with early killing of the animals.

Adjuvant arthritis when duration of experiment >18 days after generating the arthritis. Carragheen arthritis model. Induction of arthritis in inbreeding mice with borrelia spirochetes.

 

Asthma

Source

Non-harmful / below threshold / severity degree 0 Mild / severity degree 1 Moderate / severity degree 2 Severe / severity degree 3
Federal Food Safety and Veterinary Office FSVO (2018)

  Examples: Bronchoscopy. Broncho-alveolar lavage or pulmonary function test in the anaesthetised animal. Advanced passive cutaneous anaphylaxis. Induction of eosinophilia by repeated intraperitoneal administration of polymyxin B. Examples: Models without respiratory distress. Accumulation of leukocytes in the lungs after inhalation of allergens and inflammatory mediators in the sensitised animal. Accumulation of leukocytes in the peritoneum after intraperitoneal administration of allergens and inflammatory mediators in the sensitised animal. Whole-body plethysmography. Examples: Triggering of anaphylaxis. Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (triggering of endotoxin shock in the conscious animal).

 

This page was updated on 01 January 2021

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