Infections in general

Source

Non-harmful / below threshold / severity degree 0 Mild / severity degree 1 Moderate / severity degree 2 Severe / severity degree 3
Home Office (2014 a)

    If animals show signs of obvious illness, for example, piloerection, huddled posture,reluctance to move, isolation from the group in rodents, and if this is promptly detected and animals are killed immediately, procedures could be classed as moderate. If animals remain in the condition described as moderate for more than 24 hours then a classification of severe will be appropriate.
Home Office (2014 a)   Systemic disease models such as challenge with an inflammatory agent, infection where these do not materially impact on the animal, or which cause only minor short-term clinical signs, may be considered mild where appropriate endpoints are instigated. Short- to medium-term systemic illness should be classified as moderate if clinical signs are more than minor and short-term, but animals remain able to move, engage in species-appropriate behaviour (such as nest-building in rodents) and feed and drink unaided even if there are appropriate supportive measures, for example, wet food on the floor of cage for rodents, provision of cut grass to ruminants. Any systemic disease where animals are found moribund will be classed as severe.
Federal Food Safety and Veterinary Office FSVO (2018) Asymptomatic infection with opportunistic micro-organisms (non commensal) or parasites. Examples: Pseudomonas Infections without symptoms or with short-term mild clinical symptoms. Infections accompanied by short-term medium-grade (distinct) or chronic low-grade clinical symptoms. Infections characterised by progressive or chronic severe clinical symptoms.
Working Group of Berlin Animal Welfare Officers (2010)*
*The duration of infections is often a crucial stress factor!
  Short-term infections with mild clinical symptoms (e.g. local abscess). Short-term infections with moderate, or chronic infections with mild clinical symptoms (e.g. diarrhoea). Progressive infections with lethal consequence, or chronic infections with distinct clinical symptoms (e.g. paralysis).

 

Gnotobiology - immunology of commensals

Source

Non-harmful / below threshold / severity degree 0 Mild / severity degree 1 Moderate / severity degree 2 Severe / severity degree 3
Federal Food Safety and Veterinary Office FSVO (2018)

Experimental animals (except guinea pigs) under gnotobiotic conditions after colonisation of germ-free animals by socialisation with pathogen-free animals which are either monocolonised or have a limited, defined (gnotobiotic) microbiota.

Colonisation of germ-free animals with non-pathogenic bacteria which, however, may cause a mild temporary pathology in germ-free animals.

Examples: Caecal enlargement without further pathologies such as raised diaphragm. Colonisation by gastric tube.

Infection/colonisation with pathogenic bacteria, colonisation with non-pathogenic bacteria which may cause a short-term moderate or long-term mild pathology in germ- free animals.

Examples: Infection/colonisation with pathogenic or opportunistic pathogenic bacteria. Caecal enlargement with induced pathologies such as female sterility in guinea pigs.
Infection/colonisation with pathogenic bacteria, colonisation with non-pathogenic bacteria which may cause a short-term severe or long-term moderate pathology in germ-free animals.

 

Bacterial infections

Source

Non-harmful / below threshold / severity degree 0 Mild / severity degree 1 Moderate / severity degree 2 Severe / severity degree 3
Federal Food Safety and Veterinary Office FSVO (2018)

  Induction of localised bacterial dermatitides by various organisms. Induction of bacterial vaginitis in the mouse or rat. Implantation of a tissue chamber which is subsequently completely colonised by bacteria. Models with induced endotoxin shock in laboratory rodents under sedation, with euthanasia while still under sedation. Models with infections for screening new antibiotics. Models with induced endotoxin shock in conscious animals. Efficacy tests of vaccines in accordance with Ph. Eur. (incl. equine glanders, swine erysipelas). Demonstration of toxin in routine diagnostics and inspection of foodstuffs (Clostridia, tetanus, botulism, blackleg, gaseous gangrene).
Working Group of Berlin Animal Welfare Officers (2010)   Induction of localised bacterial dermatitides with several pathogens. If combined with pruritus or hyperaesthesia --> moderate stress. Implantation of a tissue chamber, later being completely colonized with bacteria. RITARD model (removable intestinal tie adult rabbit diarrhoea model) with enterotoxic Escherichia coli.

Models with induction of bacterial synovitis, e.g. with Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme disease), in immunosuppressed animals. CASP1 model for inducing a septic clinical picture. LPS2injections in inflammation models.

1Colon Ascendens Stent Peritonitis, 2 Lipopolysaccharides are no longer rated as infectious agents, the pathogenic effect, however, of e.g. enterobacteriaceae among others is based on this molecule. The effects can range from induction of mild sepsis (5 mg/kg) up to an anaphylactic shock (15 mg/kg) .

 

Viral infections

Source

Non-harmful / below threshold / severity degree 0 Mild / severity degree 1 Moderate / severity degree 2 Severe / severity degree 3
Federal Food Safety and Veterinary Office FSVO (2018)

  Subclinical forms of Sendai virus infections in the mouse. Spumavirus infection or feline immunodeficiency virus infection. Demonstration of delayed hypersensitivity reaction in choriomeningitis virus infection by footpad swelling. Production of seed virus for the preparation of tick-borne encephalitis virus antigen. Intracerebral infection of the mouse with LCM virus (lymphocytic choriomeningitis). Efficacy tests of vaccines (tests of antigenic efficacy) in accordance with Ph. Eur. (incl. rabies, parvovirus, distemper, influenza, foot-and-mouth disease).
Working Group of Berlin Animal Welfare Officers (2010)   Spumavirus or immunodeficiency virus in cats. Induction of a human influenza B infection in mice. Infections with hepatites non-A, non-B in non-human primates. Intracerebral infection of mice with LCM virus (lymphocytic choriomeningitis). Rat model for herpesvirus encephalitis.

 

Parasitic infections

Source

Non-harmful / below threshold / severity degree 0 Mild / severity degree 1 Moderate / severity degree 2 Severe / severity degree 3
Federal Food Safety and Veterinary Office FSVO (2018)   Infestation of carnivores with intestinal stages of cestodes. Mild infections with causative organisms of intestinal parasitoses (Giardia, Coccidia, Trichostrongylideae, hookworm). Mild infections with causative organisms of parasitoses of the tissue and blood (Fasciola hepatica, Trichinella, Toxoplasma, Neospora, Plasmodium). Mild to moderate infestations with ectoparasites without repetition (incl. ticks, fleas or flies in rabbits or pigeons). Infections with pathogenic doses of lungworms (e.g. large lungworm, Dictyocaulus viviparous), tissue parasites (e.g. metacestodes of Echinococcus) and blood protozoa (e.g. trypanosomes (including Trypanosoma brucei, Leishmania and Trypanosoma cruzi), Babesia, Plasmodium). Infections with high doses of Fasciola hepatica in sheep, lungworms, tissue parasites (e.g. metacestodes of Echinococcus), blood protozoa (trypanosomatids, Plasmodium, Babesia spp.) or ectoparasites in immunodepressed animals (incl. mange mites).
Federal Food Safety and Veterinary Office FSVO (2018)  

The host suffers mild, short-term strain due to the parasites.

Examples: Exposure of the anaesthetised host to mosquitoe. Rabbit ear with 20 ticks for 2 hours.
The host is either repeatedly infested with the same parasite, or is infested once but with several different parasites, leading to moderate strain on the host. The animal is held in a contention system, the parasite burden is low. Examples: Repeated infestation of cattle with horn fly (one infestation per week until decrease in efficacy). Production of ticks on cattle. Exposure of a non-anaesthetised host for up to one hour with no possibility of avoidance and with a maximum parasite count of 100 female mosquitoes. Severe infection with possible wounds. Examples: Massive parasite burden. Intestinal parasites in sheep.
Working Group of Berlin Animal Welfare Officers (2010)  

Subclinical infections in immunocompetent animals with pathogens of parasitic colon diseases (giardia, coccidia trichostrongyles, hookworms).

Infections with pathogenic doses of trichostrongyles, lung worms, tissue parasites (e.g. metacestodes of Echinococcus, but only initially; in later stages, depending on the location, severe stress is possible) and blood protozoa (trypanosomes,
babesia). Principally, low to medium infestations with ectoparasites (e.g. ticks, fleas, or flies) can be rated as moderate.
Infections with high doses of trichostrongyles, lung worms, tissue parasites (e.g. metacestodes of Echinococcus), blood protozoa (trypanosomes, plasmodia, babesia), or ectoparasites (e.g. mange mites).

 

Mycotic infections

Source

Non-harmful / below threshold / severity degree 0 Mild / severity degree 1 Moderate / severity degree 2 Severe / severity degree 3
Working Group of Berlin Animal Welfare Officers (2010)
  Induction of geotrichoses, without pruritus only. Application of low pathogenic fungi, like Rhodotorula rubra or Candida glabrata on the back of a guinea pig with diabetes. Induction of a pulmonary aspergillosis (allergic reactions caused by aspergillosis spores).

 

This page was updated on 01 January 2021

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