We all use facial movement to express pain and suffering and to recognise it in other humans. Scientific measurement of facial expression is in fact widely used to measure pain in infants which cannot express their feelings verbally (Schiavenato, 2008).
Research is now being conducted into the recognition and interpretation of facial expressions in a number of animal species. This will help researchers both to recognise pain and suffering, and also to assess the efficacy of pain treatment.
Grimace scales have been developed so far for the mouse (Langford et al., 2010; Leach et al., 2012), rat (Sotocinal et al., 2011), rabbit (Keating et al., 2012), horse (Dalla Costa et al., 2014) and sheep (Häger et al. and Lu et al.) Researchers are working on similar scales for the rhesus monkey and pig.
Similar research has been performed on cows to assess their degree of contentment using a range of welfare indicators, including the size of the white of the eye (Sandem et al., 2002) and the posture of the ears. Studies have been performed on goats to detect signs of emotions in both positive and negative situations.
More resources for planning animal research and testing are available in the PREPARE guidelines.
Brajon S, Laforest JP, Bergeron R, Tallet C, Hötzel M-J & Devillers N (2015): Persistency of the piglet's reactivity to the handler following a previous positive or negative experience. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 162, 9-19.
Briefer EF, Tettamanti F & McElligott AG (2015): Emotions in goats: mapping physiological, behavioural and vocal profiles. Animal Behaviour, 99, 131-143.
Dalla Costa E, Minero M, Lebelt D, Stucke D, Canali E & Leach MC (2014): Development of the Horse Grimace Scale (HGS) as a Pain Assessment Tool in Horses Undergoing Routine Castration. PLoS ONE doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0092281
Häger C, Biernot S, Buettner M, Glage S, Kuebler LM, et al. (2017): The Sheep Grimace Scale as an indicator of post-operative distress and pain in laboratory sheep PLoS ONE doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0175839
Keating SCJ, Thomas AA, Flecknell PA & Leach MC (2012): Evaluation of EMLA Cream for Preventing Pain during Tattooing of Rabbits: Changes in Physiological, Behavioural and Facial Expression Responses. PLoS ONE 7(9): e44437. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0044437
Langford DJ, Bailey AL, Chanda ML, Clarke SE, Drummond TE, Echols S, Glick S, Ingrao J, Klassen-Ross T, LaCroix-Fralish ML, Matsumiya L, Sorge RE, Sotocinal SG, Tabaka JM, Wong D, van den Maagdenberg AMJM, Ferrari MD, Craig KD & Mogil JS (2010): Coding of facial expressions of pain in the laboratory mouse. Nature Methods 7, 447-449.
Leach MC, Klaus K, Miller AL, Scotto di Perrotolo M, Sotocinal SG & Flecknell PA (2012): The Assessment of Post-Vasectomy Pain in Mice Using Behaviour and the Mouse Grimace Scale. PLoS ONE 7(4): e35656. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0035656
Lu Y, Mahmoud M & Robinson P (2017): Estimating sheep pain level using facial action unit detection. Paper presented to the IEEE International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition, Washington, DC. 30 May – 3 June, 2017.
Proctor HS & Carder G (2014): Can ear postures reliably measure the positive emotional state of cows? Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 161, 20-27. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.applanim.2014.09.015
Sandem AI, Braastad BO & Boe KE (2002): Eye white may indicate emotional state on a frustration-contentedness axis in dairy cows. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 79, 1-10.
Schiavenato MJ (2008): Facial expression and pain assessment in the pediatric patient: the primal face of pain. Spec Pediatr Nurs. 13:89-97. doi: 10.1111/j.1744-6155.2008.00140.x.
Sotocinal SG, Sorge RE, Zaloum A, Tuttle AH, Martin LJ, Weiskopf JS, Mapplebeck JCS, Wei P, Zhan S, Zhang S, McDougall JJ, King OD & Mogil JS (2011): The Rat Grimace Scale: A partially automated method for quantifying pain in the laboratory rat via facial expressions. Mol. Pain DOI:10.1186/1744-8069-7-55.
Did you find what you were looking for?Yes, I found it! No, I did not!
Thanks for your feedback! Please note that we cannot respond unless you supply your email address.
What are you looking for?
Please give us your feedback so we can improve the information on the page. Thank you in advance for your help. Please add your email address if you would like a reply.Please contact us by email if you have any questions.