Refinement of animal experiments
Refinement is one of the "three Rs" (Replacement, Reduction and Replacement) of Russell and Burch, a concept which is described in more detail here.
They defined the three Rs as:
Replacement alternatives: methods which permit a given purpose to be achieved without conducting experiments or other scientific procedures on animals
Reduction alternatives: methods for obtaining comparable levels of information from the use of fewer animals in scientific procedures, or for obtaining more information from the same number of animals
Refinement alternatives: methods which alleviate or minimise potential pain, suffering or distress, and which enhance animal well-being
Lloyd ML, Foden BW & Wolfensohn SE (2008): Refinement: promoting the three Rs in practice. Laboratory Animals, 42, 284-293.
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