By "alternatives" to the use of animals in research, Norecopa endorses the internationally accepted tenet of The Three R's, developed by Russell and Burch in the UK in the 1950s. The Three S's of Carol Newton are a good adjunct to the three R's.

Alternatives validated by the OECD
Alternatives validated by EURL ECVAM
The European Pharmacopeia

Literature
Alternatives to animal testing: a review
Alternatives to animal testing

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