By "alternatives" to the use of animals in research, Norecopa endorses the internationally accepted tenet of The Three R's (Replacement, Reduction, Refinement), developed by Russell and Burch in the UK in the 1950s. There are separate pages with resources for each of these three Rs:
The Three S's of Carol Newton are a good adjunct to the three R's.
The PREPARE guidelines and their associated webpages give comprehensive guidance on how to plan animal experiments in the spirit of these principles.
In this section there are separate pages with more information on:
- Kinter et al. (2021): A brief history of use of animals in biomedical research and perspective on non-animal alternatives
- Get Real! Resources about animal research and alternatives
- NAT: Non-Animal Technologies database
- It's Time to Think Outside the Cage (TED talk by Charu Chandrasekera, Canadian Centre for Alternatives to Animal Methods, CCAAM)
- Alternative methods for toxicity testing (EURL ECVAM)
- Kiner et al. (2021): A brief history of use of animals in biomedical research and perspective on non-animal alternatives
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