Replacement of animals in research

Replacement is one of the "three Rs" (Replacement, Reduction and Replacement) of Russell and Burch, a concept which is described in more detail here.

They defined the three Rs as:

Replacement alternatives: methods which permit a given purpose to be achieved without conducting experiments or other scientific procedures on animals

Reduction alternatives: methods for obtaining comparable levels of information from the use of fewer animals in scientific procedures, or for obtaining more information from the same number of animals

Refinement alternatives: methods which alleviate or minimise potential pain, suffering or distress, and which enhance animal well-being

The R of Replacement - a Powerpoint presentation produced by the RSPCA

Other literature
Balls M (1994): Replacement of animal procedures: alternatives in research, education and testing. Laboratory Animals, 28, 193-211

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