Replacement of animals in research
Replacement is one of the "three Rs" (Replacement, Reduction and Replacement) of Russell and Burch, a concept which is described in more detail here.
They defined the three Rs as:
Replacement alternatives: methods which permit a given purpose to be achieved without conducting experiments or other scientific procedures on animals
Reduction alternatives: methods for obtaining comparable levels of information from the use of fewer animals in scientific procedures, or for obtaining more information from the same number of animals
Refinement alternatives: methods which alleviate or minimise potential pain, suffering or distress, and which enhance animal well-being
The PREPARE guidelines contain links to many resources which can be used to implement the 3Rs.
Replacing animals in research (RSPCA)
- Current EU regulatory requirements for the assessment of chemicals and cosmetic products: challenges and opportunities for introducing new approach methodologies (Pistollato et al., 2021)
- The Non-Animal Technologies (NAT) database
- Inventory of Replacement databases from the Swedish 3R-Centre
- Balls M (1994): Replacement of animal procedures: alternatives in research, education and testing. Laboratory Animals, 28, 193-211
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