Alternative Animal Toxicity Testing of Chemical Warfare Agents
Owner/Developer: Handbook of Toxicology of Chemical Warfare Agents
|Country:||United States of America|
Alternatives to animal testing, particularly in chemical warfare testing, have been well-recognized. The concept of 3Rs (replacement, reduction, and refinement) has been practiced and its goals have been achieved, as applicable. One key consideration in the application of such methodologies is validation and reproducible quality of data. In counterterrorism measures, “Animal Rule” has been developed and implemented to meet the urgent need of a terrorist attack. In this chapter, a list of chemical warfare agents, validated alternative methods, the role of 3Rs in countering warfare agents, and advancements in instrumentation and concepts such as “human-on-a-chip” are briefly described.
|User access:||Fee-based access|
|Relevance:||Replacement - Reduction - Refinement|
|Purpose:||Documentation and information|
|Technology/Tools:||Alternative test methods (in vitro) - Animal testing (in vivo)|
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