Pain and suffering in fish
Researchers are still debating whether fish have the ability to suffer or not and on this website we will keep you updated on the latest news in this area. If you have additional links that will be useful on this page, please let us know using the Feedback box on this page.
Please also see guidance on Humane Endpoints, Health monitoring & disease prevention, and Welfare.
- Seddon LU (2009): Pain Perception in Fish: Indicators and Endpoints. ILAR Journal, 50 (4), 338–342
- Lopez-Luna J et al. (2017): Impact of stress, fear and anxiety on the nociceptive responses of larval zebrafish
- The F.I.S.H. website (Fish Indicators of Stress and Health).
- Sverdrup A (2005) Neurophysiology in relation to pain Meeting proceeding
- Chandroo KP et al. (2004) An evaluation of current perspectives on consciousness and pain in fishes, Fish and Fisheries 5(4): 281-285
- Sneddon LU (2004) Evolution of nociception in vertebrates: comparative analysis of lower vertebrates. Brain Research Reviews 46, 123-130
- Robinson A. (2003) Animal Rights, Anthropomorphism and Traumatized Fish, web publication
- Brown S. (2003) Do Fish Feel Pain? web publication
- James A. Swan J.A. (2003) Hooked! Ouch? Fish, they say, feel pain. web publication
- Sneddon L.U., Braithwaite V.A., Gentle M.A. (2003) Do fishes have nociceptors? Evidence for the evolution of a vertebrate sensory system. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B, 270: 1115-1121. Critique of this paper by James Rose.
- Sneddon LU (2003) Trigeminal somatosensory innervation of the head of a teleost fish with particular reference to nociception. Brain Research 972, 44-52
- Sneddon LU (2003) The evidence for pain in fish: the use of morpine as an analgesic. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 83, 153-162
- Sneddon LU, Braithwaite VA, Gentle MJ (2003) Novel object test: examining nociception and fear in the rainbow trout. The Journal of Pain 4, 431-440
- Sneddon LU (2002) Anatomical and electrophysiological analysis of the trigeminal nerve in a teleost fish, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Neuroscience letters 319, 167-171
- Rose JD (2002) The neurobehavioral nature of fishes and the question of awareness and pain. Reviews in Fisheries Science, 10: 1-38
- Guidance on the severity classification of scientific procedures involving fish
- Brattelid T (1999) Kapittel 5: Smerte og lidelse hos fisk, Kompendium i forsøksdyrlære for fiskeforskere (Norwegian-language compendium from the Norwegian School of Veterinary Science)
- Overmier JB and Hollis KL (1983) The Teleostean telencephalon in Learning. In: Fish Neurobiology Volume 2 (Davis RE & Northcutt RG, eds). The University of Michigan Press, pp: 265-284.
- Tailfin clipping, a painful procedure: studies on Nile tilapia and common carp
- Neural network detected in a presumed vestigial trait: ultrastructure of the salmonid adipose fin
- Pain sensitivity of fishes and analgesia induced by opioid and nonopioid agents
- Considerations for a European animal welfare standard to evaluate adverse phenotypes in teleost fish
- Are we wrong to assume that fish can't feel pain?
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