- Construct a systematic plan for all stages of necropsy, including location, and identification of all animals and samples.
Please also consult the section of PREPARE on Health risks, waste disposal and decontamination.
Necropsies should be planned with the same systematic attention to detail as that required by the in vivo study, to avoid bias or loss of material during the procedure or in storage afterwards. An SOP should be followed for all animals, even in the absence of macroscopic lesions. Necropsy findings unrelated to the study but of potential concern to the facility, breeder or supplier should be reported to the relevant parties. All carcasses should be labelled individually, so that they can be identified even after the routine necropsy has been performed, in case it proves necessary to take more samples, or necropsy more animals, than originally intended.
- Guide to the Necropsy of the Mouse (V. Corvelli)
- Diagnostic necropsy and selected tissue and sample collection in rats and mice (JOVE video)
- Revised guides for organ sampling and trimming in rats and mice (joint publication by RITA and NACAD)
- Development of a necropsy protocol for newborn mice (Sara Capas Paneda et al., Porto)
- A simplified necropsy technique for mice: making the most out of unscheduled deaths (Scudamore et al., 2014)
- See the textbook Drug Safety Evaluation which includes chapters on
- Tissue Sampling and Processing for Histopathology Evaluation (Slaoui et al., 2017)
- Procedures of Necropsy and Tissue Sampling (Fiette, Slaoui & Bauchet, 2017)
- Animal research pathology: regulatory and safety considerations (Wallace & Trundy, 2020)
- Pathology in Biomedical Research: A Mission-Critical Specialty for Reproducibility and Rigor in Translational Research (a special issue of the ILAR Journal, 2018)
- Pathology Methods for the Evaluation of Embryonic and Perinatal Developmental Defects and Lethality in Genetically Engineered Mice (Ward et al., 2011)
- Necropsy Guide: Rodents and the Rabbit (Feldman & Sealy, 1988)
- The Virtual Mouse Necropsy
- The Necropsy Book: A Guide for Veterinary Students, Residents, Clinicians, Pathologists and Biological Researchers (King et al., 2014)
- Recommendations for minimum information for publication of experimental pathology data: MINPEPA guidelines (Scudamore et al., 2015)
Introduction to Necropsy: Anatomy and Necropsy Techniques (rodents), an interactive workshop from The Learning Curve
- Comparative Anatomy and Histology: A Mouse, Rat and Human Atlas (Treuting, Dintzis & Montine, 2018)
- A Practical Guide to the Histology of the Mouse (Scudamore, 2013)
- The Laboratory Mouse (Hedrich, 2012)
- A Color Atlas of Sectional Anatomy of the Mouse (Iwaki, Yamashita & Hayakawa, 2001)
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